Birth rates are dropping to ever-lower levels around the world. Populations are growing more slowly and, in some cases, beginning to decline. Rapid population aging has begun in the West and parts of Asia and is just over the horizon elsewhere. The demographic changes, their economic implications, and possible policy responses are the subject matter of this volume. What will be the effects on economic performance? How can couples be encouraged to marry and have children? Can educational reform lead to a more productive young labor force helping to offset their meager numbers? Can labor market reform extend the work life of older workers without damaging the interests of others? How should the social safety net that supports the elderly evolve in ways that are both fair and sustainable? The papers in this volume draw on international experience to address these issues, but emphasize the experience of Japan ??? the country with the world??'s oldest population.
This book deals with timing attacks on cryptographic ciphers. It describes and analyzes various unintended covert timing channels that are formed when ciphers are executed in microprocessors. The book considers modern superscalar microprocessors which are enabled with features such as multi-threaded, pipelined, parallel, speculative, and out-of order execution. Various timing attack algorithms are described and analyzed for both block ciphers as well as public-key ciphers. The interplay between the cipher implementation, the system architecture, and the attack's success is analyzed. Further hardware and software countermeasures are discussed with the aim of illustrating methods to build systems that can protect against these attacks.
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