This book provides a unique set of empirical and theoretical analyses on the conditions, determinants and effects of the exchange and trade of technological knowledge. This work delivered by the research team lead by Bernard Guilhon shows that technological knowledge is more and more traded and exchanged in the market place. When and where contractual interactions are implemented by an institutional set-up which makes_the exchange better reliable for both parties. The new evidence provided by the book moreover makes it possible to appreciate the positive role of major knowledge rent externalities provided by the new quasi-markets for technological knowledge. Trade in technological knowledge leads in fact, as the book shows, to higher levels of division of labor, specialization and efficiency in the production and distribution of new technological knowledge. This dynamics is considered a part of a broader process where the generation of technological knowledge is itself becoming closer to the production of goods so that the division of labour among learning organization plays a growing role. Exchange of technological knowledge takes part because the conditions for appropriability are now far better that currently assumed by a large traditional literature. The analysis carried out through the book builds upon the notion of localized technological knowledge and suggests that the exchange of technological knowledge is not a spontaneous 'atmospheric' process.
Create value while you manage risk
Anyone engaged in the rapidly emerging marketing of energy as a commodity will benefit from Energy Marketing Handbook. In this comprehensive volume filled with the latest in energy marketing information, energy-specialist Denise Warkentin details the open markets, wholesale and retail wheeling, the alignment of the electric power industry, and offers ways to manage risk in the market. An extensive reference section defines the special terms related to energy as a commodity and lists acronyms and trade groups involved. Readers will learn: What energy marketing is and how it differs from both power marketing and brokering How the past has shaped the current path of the electric power and natural gas industries How electricity deregulation will effect natural gas What the Federal Energy Regulatory Commision's recent adoption of Ferc Orders 888 and 889 means for the industry How alliances and marketing relationships have emerged within the electric utility industry and in the natural gas industry How to manange and control risk in a competitive atmosphere As Editor of Energy Marketing and News Editor for Electric Light & Power, Denise Warkentin deals with the complex issues of energy marketing on a daily basis. Based on her research, she teaches informative and non-technical public seminars on such topics as utility financial condition and profitability, energy marketing and reengineering and downsizing. Warkentin holds a BA in journalism from the University of Oklahoma and has been writing on business, regulatory, legal and environmental issues for 13 years and on electric power and natural gas markets for five years.
In Making a Market, Jean Ensminger analyzes the process by which the market was introduced into the economy of a group of Kenyan pastoralists. Professor Ensminger employs new institutional economic analysis to assess the impact of new market institutions on production and distribution, with particular emphasis on the effect of institutions on decreasing transaction costs over time. This study traces the effects of increasing commercialization on the economic well-being of individual households, rich and poor alike, over considerable time and analyzes the process by which institutions themselves are transformed as a market economy develops. This case study points out the importance of understanding the roles of ideology and bargaining power--in addition to pure economic forces, such as changing relative prices--in shaping market institutions.
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