Clearing forms the core part of a smooth and efficiently functioning financial market infrastructure. Traditionally, it has been provided by clearing houses, most of which today act as a 'central counterparty' (CCP) between the two sides of a trade. The rapid growth of cross-border trading has sparked discussion on the most efficient industry structure - particularly in Europe and the US. At the heart of this discussion lies the question of whether the implementation of a single clearing house creates greater benefits than a more competitive but interlinked market structure. This is the starting point for this book, which analyses the efficiency of clearing and clearing industry structure. Along with clear-cut definitions and a concise characterisation and descriptive analysis of the clearing industry, the book determines the efficiency impact of various cross-border integration and harmonisation initiatives between CCPs. This serves to identify the most preferable future structure for the clearing industry.
As central planning disappears from what was the socialist world, no viable economic systems have emerged to take its place. The integration of these countries into the international economic system and the development of market economies in them are among the most pressing economic problems of the future.
As television transformed American culture in the 1950s, critics feared the influence of this newly pervasive mass medium on the nation's literature. While many studies have addressed the rhetorical response of artists and intellectuals to mid-twentieth-century mass culture, the relationship between the emergence of this culture and the production of novels has gone largely unexamined.
This Handbook is concerned with the law of trademarks and related signs - company names, domain names, indications of geographical origin, work names and other names. It consists of a series of comprehensive and practical reports from 14 of the world's most important economies - Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Switzerland and the United Kingdom - each detailing the present state of the law in that jurisdiction. Each country report is between 40 and 120 pages long. (The law of trademarks in the US will be dealt with in a future second edition). For many multi-national companies their knowledge of trademarks and signs has never been more important. Infringement of valuable signs and trademarks can lead to multi-million dollar disputes and correspondingly large settlements and awards. This Handbook is designed to enable multi-national enterprises to understand the different legal environments in which they operate and to plan their legal and commercial strategies accordingly, avoiding disputes and protecting their own IP assets. Moreover, the Handbook enables communication with foreign advisers and helps to avoid the pitfalls and misunderstandings arising from advice and information given and received across borders. Besides being organised by jurisdiction, the book deals with all types of trademark or sign using the same analytical method (formation, cancellation, proprietorship, transfer, licence, conflicts between signs, scope of protection, opposition to registration, types of claims and procedures) and in respect of each jurisdiction the authors set out the best strategy for safeguarding the goodwill related to trademarks and signs. The second and third parts of the handbook offer an overview of modern approaches to the marketing of trademarks and signs, as well as accepted market valuation methods. The system used to organise the account of trademark law in each country facilitates straightforward and quick access to the relevant laws. Within each country report the authors focus on potential conflicts between signs and trademarks, thus adding to the practical value of the book. The authors are all experienced and well-known experts in their own countries, whose collective approach to writing emphasises making the content clear, coherent, concise and practically-oriented. Country Contributors: Austria - Christian Hauer (Wien) Belgium - Hendrik Vanhees (Antwerp University) Canada - Kelly Gill (Toronto) China - Yi Wenhui/Lian Yunze/Connie Zhuang (Beijing) Czech Republic - Petr Hajn/Ivo Telec (Brno University) France - Pascale Trefigny (Grenoble) Germany - Paul Lange (Dusseldorf) Italy - Adriano Vanzetti (Milan) Japan - Kazuko Matsuo (Tokyo) The Netherlands - Paul van der Kooij (Leiden University) Portugal - Jose de Oliveira Ascencao (Lisbon) Russia - Alexander Petrovich Sergeev (St. Petersburg) Switzerland - Eugen Marbach/Peter Widmer (Bern) United Kingdom - Phillip Johnson (London) Brand Strategy - Klaus Schmidt () Brand Valuation - Klaus Brandmeyer (Hamburg)/Roland Schulz(Cologne)/Ottmar Franzen (Wiesbaden) Language Consultant - Jeremy Phillips (London)
Marketers interested in designing effective strategies to tap the increasingly lucrative mature market presently must look for relevant information in several disciplines and need the background to translate it into a decision-making framework. This book systematically organizes information scattered among various fields of scientific inquiry; it interprets and presents information, making it easier for the busy decision maker to find out how older consumers behave and why. By presenting and interpreting relevant information in a marketing decision-making context, the book provides the bases for developing effective marketing strategies. Next, the author discusses both specific and general aspects of behavior that have implications for marketing strategy. Specifically, the book helps the reader understand how changes in mental processes in late life might affect the way an older person responds to marketing stimuli, and how lifestyles of mature persons can form the bases for designing effective marketing strategies. Finally, the author discusses specific aspects of older consumers' consumption and behavior in the marketplace, including mass media use, expenditure and consumption patterns, shopping habits, product/service acquisition process, as well as behaviors following purchase. At the end of each chapter, the author outlines several implications of the material presented that will be of interest to marketers, retailers, advertisers, social workers, public policy makers, and students of human behavior. The book ends by summarizing key points, drawing conclusions, and making recommendations to various groups interested in serving the mature market. The results of hundreds of studies are reviewed and presented in such a way that they can be used by practitioners. The book begins with an examination of the older consumer market and its characteristics. Age-related changes in late life and theoretical explanations for them are discussed next to help the reader understand human behavior in general and consumer behavior in particular.
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