Market-based environmental policy analysis requires taking into account all the institutional factors necessary for the market to function optimally, as well as the social forces that shape a final policy design. This book sheds light on the institutional history of the emissions trading concept as it has evolved across different contexts. Diplomats, policy experts, academics, and the carbon trading industry currently have a monopoly of knowledge about the intricacies of developing and implementing emission trading systems (ETS) for environmental control. This book seeks to weaken that monopoly. It makes accessible the policy design and practical implementation aspects of a key tool for fighting climate change. Blas Perez Henriquez analyzes past market-based environmental programs to extract lesions for the future of ETS. He follows the development of the emissions trading concept as it evolved in the United States and was later applied in the multinational European Emissions Trading System and in subnational programs in the United States such as the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (REGI). This ex-post evaluation of an ETS as it evolves in real time in the real world provides a valuable supplement to what is already known from theoretical arguments and simulation studies about the advantages and disadvantages of the market strategy. Political cycles and political debate over the use of markets for environmental control make any form of climate policy extremely contentious. Henriquez argues that, despite ideological disagreements, the ETS approach, or, more popularly, 'cap-and-trade' policy design, remains the best hope for a cost-effective policy to reduce GHG emissions around the world.
The path from single market to economic union is a continuing, and controversial, story; raising questions about the present and future regulation, structures, and purpose of economic union within the broader objectives of the EU legal and political order. This collection focuses on the evolution and regulation of the EU as an economic union, in tribute to the scholarship of the late Professor John A Usher.
This book provides a unique set of empirical and theoretical analyses on the conditions, determinants and effects of the exchange and trade of technological knowledge. This work delivered by the research team lead by Bernard Guilhon shows that technological knowledge is more and more traded and exchanged in the market place. When and where contractual interactions are implemented by an institutional set-up which makes_the exchange better reliable for both parties. The new evidence provided by the book moreover makes it possible to appreciate the positive role of major knowledge rent externalities provided by the new quasi-markets for technological knowledge. Trade in technological knowledge leads in fact, as the book shows, to higher levels of division of labor, specialization and efficiency in the production and distribution of new technological knowledge. This dynamics is considered a part of a broader process where the generation of technological knowledge is itself becoming closer to the production of goods so that the division of labour among learning organization plays a growing role. Exchange of technological knowledge takes part because the conditions for appropriability are now far better that currently assumed by a large traditional literature. The analysis carried out through the book builds upon the notion of localized technological knowledge and suggests that the exchange of technological knowledge is not a spontaneous 'atmospheric' process.
With contributions from well-regarded scholars of international economic law, this book sets out the case for an innovative solution to extreme poverty which utilizes international trade and its legal framework to relieve populations of the poorest countries around the world of extreme poverty. "Microtrade" is international trade on a small scale, based primarily on manually produced products using small amounts of capital and low levels of technology available at a local level in lesser developed countries.
This book explores the theory, application, and legal framework for microtrade. In the first part of the book the architect of the microtrade theory, Yong-Shik Lee, offers a theoretical framework for microtrade including its basic elements, product demand and operational issues, legal issues, and the global management and facilitation of microtrade. The book then goes on to look at issues including the structure and financing of microtrade, e-commerce, government procurement, and the fair trade movement's possible relationship with microtrade. . The final part of the book considers empirical case studies of microtrade with agricultural products. The book shows how microtrade, if effectively administered on a global scale, can do much to end extreme poverty.
At a market, a fairy purchases riches found in nature. Then releases them for their own good or the good of others. A different season plays out with each stanza of Fyleman's verse. Visually exquisite, this is a story to be savored by both parents and children, and is a great book to be shared in preschool story time.Â
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